1. To start with, it has to be assumed that social and psychological factors have an essential impact on one’s choice of media. The researcher Attardo (2014) pointed out the factors which influence the choice of media result in new perspectives for the analysis of social and psychological factors.
The researchers Nabi and Oliver (2009) emphasize that social and psychological factors generate expectations and desires about the information obtained from watching the media. When discussing social factors which affect media choice: age, gender, social status, and cultural taste have to be mentioned.
- Age. The age of an individual produces great alterations on the choice of media. Media exposure always presupposes choice, and age determines the behavioral patterns of an individual. These patterns have a significant influence. The researcher Arnett (2007) emphasizes that children’s and adolescents’ choices in media show their interests. Age creates the difference between interests.
- Gender. Gender is an essential social factor that affects the way in which people perceive information. Different kinds of media display different kinds of gender-type emotions.
- Social status. Social status is often connected with the worldview and behavioral patterns’ difference. Social status provides people with particular experience. For instance, people with high social status usually have rich educational knowledge and experience. It broadens their vision of the world and diversifies their choices.
- Cultural taste. According to McQuail and Windahl (2013), cultural taste refers to an individual attribute which is “shaped by family, social milieu, education and so-called cultural capital” (p. 139). McQuail and Windahl (2013) also guide the media content preferences and choices and result in emotional satisfactions. The cultural taste is based on cultural artifacts. Cultural taste is determined by cultural beliefs and patterns, which are caused by specific traits and peculiarities.
What concerns psychological factors, in this case, the situation is completely different and includes fidelity, immersion, presence, and user acceptance (Derks & Bakker, 2013):
- Fidelity is significant, as it renders the degree to which simulation addresses the feelings (life fear or stress), experienced by the person in a real world (Derks & Bakker, 2013).
- Immersion refers the individual’s degree to which he/she becomes absorbed by particular experience. Immersion contributes to the information, which the viewer gets. While discussing the significance of situated immersion, Derks and Bakker (2013) emphasize that it affects the audience due to its ability to “subjective experience within the computer-mediated environment” (p. 5).
- Presence is the psychological factor, which increases the engagement in media content.
- User acceptance is the factor which has an essential impact on the degree of transfer. User acceptance is the factor, which hints the viewer that the media event is useful for everyday life.
The psychological factors affect the viewer, as they assist him/her to perceive the information. Inner feelings and psychological state determine human’s taste. It has to be stated that with the course of time, age and gender factors become more essential for people. It is caused by the fact that globalization soothes the cultural patterns and even social status and creates the so-called “universal” media, which brings satisfaction to people of different social statuses and cultures. However, such factors as age and gender remain essential, because they determine the taste and behavior of the viewers.
The blockbuster strategy has occupied the modern cinematography. This strategy is based on huge investments, which go hand in hand with it. Today, blockbuster products raise huge revenues, and it is one of the most fascinating aspects of today’s entertainment economy. Blockbuster strategy is usually applied to making and marketing entertainment.
Anita Elberse (2013) emphasizes that properly applied blockbuster strategy was the matter of spending money to raise even bigger revenues. The blockbuster strategy implementation presupposes creating the products, which arouse sheer interest and excitement to such an extent that people cannot do anything, but go and watch them. The emphasis in the blockbuster strategy is laid on the fact of using marketing to attract the audience. It appeals to media execs, as it assists to use all the resources effectively. For instance, Elberse (2013) provides the practical example of making blockbuster movies, while she discusses the situation, when a film is conducted to put the viewers into the seats and sell them popcorn. This strategy is truly efficient, but the flops are still present, as in certain cases the producers invest money in the promotion of media product, but not into its quality. Elberse (2013) points out that the demand of audience is fickle, and, in certain cases, promotion of the movie does not help to stick to the demands of the audience.
Elberse (2013) is right. It could be added that the flops become frequent due to the fact that application of blockbuster strategy has become a norm. Nearly every producer invents money to develop and promote the movie and it becomes rather difficult to astonish and surprise the public. People have adjusted to the media products and movies which are marked by tricks and celebrities’ acting. As a result, the success of the movie became dependent on changing and rather subjective taste of the viewers. Another reason for the common flops seems to be the fact that most producers try to minimize the risk and apply the famous and well-developed genres. It makes media products too ordinary and predictable. It decreases the interest of the wide audience. In certain cases, people even stop attending the first nights, as they know the possible development of the movie.
The blockbuster strategy, applied in the world of media, seems to be similar to the strategy of globalization, which is used in real world. The blockbuster approach applies the general standards and norms, which are aimed at raising high revenues. The problem connected with this strategy is connected with the fact that the viewers are diverse. The same concerns their taste, and it is simply impossible to use the same rules and get a positive result.