Appraisal of an Article
Table of Contents
The article under analysis is called ‘Cure-responding during simulated routine nursing care: A mixed-method study’ and is written by Chan (2010). It focuses on exploring cure-responding patterns of nursing students during the routine care in a simulated setting. The title provides sufficient information on the topic and methods of the research and, therefore, it can serve as a brief introduction to the readers.
The abstract contains full information about the article, including introduction, objective, background, methods, results, and findings. It also introduces qualitative and quantitative findings. The introductory part and the background section contain some information on the review of literature on the topic that provides a rational for the research and allow the author to define the objective of the research studies. The results and the findings are compatible with methodology and data collection analysis because they present the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the studies. Additionally, the research study also focuses on the development of future implications for the research.
The author does not provide the literature review section; instead, he introduces the background in which theoretical information has been presented. In particular, the attention has been placed on the analysis of the role of communication skills in shaping the corresponding behavioural patterns in a nursing environment. Additionally, the author also mentions the presence of the literature review as a source of information which should be analysed along with interviews and video-recordings. However, the importance of literature review should not be underestimated and, therefore, the choice of these issues could be approaches with reliance to the previous research design in which a literature review section shapes a theoretical framework for the methodology section.
It should be stressed that literature review section serves as a powerful tool for appraising the evidence. It also provides knowledge base for conducting research studies (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber 2013). In the article under analysis, all the resources reviewed are predominantly of qualitative nature, emphasising the importance of understanding behavioural patterns. Nonetheless, in order to increase the validity of the research, it is essential to provide new hierarchies and frameworks for delivering the extensive review of literature related to evidence-based practice. Furthermore, the studies by Smith, Profetto-McGrath and Cummings (2009) prove that the analysis of behavioural patterns and communication could be effectively presented through the integration of literature. Therefore, the qualitative aspects in this context prevail because the attention should first be paid to the behavioural and observational aspects. In the Chan’s article (2010), the aspect is still made on quantitative part, but it does not prevent from introducing viable results of the studies, which could be used in other research explorations.
The study is based on both qualitative and quantitative data to define both observational and statistical dimensions. Specifically, the information has been gathered by video-taping the students’ behaviour by means of debriefing interviews, as well as from student-patient actor’s feedback and the target group. In fact, the importance of presenting qualitative and quantitative research in nursing could not be underestimated. Additionally, the choice of a mixed-method research is justified because it embraces numerical and observational data.
In fact, research process in nursing should be diverse and premised on evidence and responses of the participants to contribute to the accuracy of the methodological endeavours. At the same time, the role of literature review and inclusion in previous studies can provide a solid framework for further research, as well as a sort of foundation for conducting empirical studies and carrying out interviews, including the gaps and pitfalls of previous studies. According to Gerrish and Lacey (2013, p. 65), “searching the literature is also essential when developing policy, evaluating practice or attempting to implement change”. In this respect, while introducing an up-to-date source or evidence, it should be supported by previous studies to emphasise its relevance and validity. Due to the fact that contemporary health encounters many demands on resources and materials, it is essential to trace any shifts and innovative ideas in the latest articles and reviews. Therefore, in the context of a mixed-method research, the attention should be paid on the presence of the paradigm, which should be consistent with the research objective. Furthermore, while considering the place of mixed-method designs in nursing, it is important to focus on the current position of evidence-based practice that plays an important role in establishing a hierarchy of data.
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Various types of evidence are classified in accordance with the strength of bias, emphasising the clinical research, its precision of diagnosing and defining patterns. Additionally, the inappropriate dichotomy and lack of objectivity can also negatively affect the hierarchy and influence the validity of the research question. At this point, the article under analysis succeeds in delivering viable objectives and evidence stemmed from the efficient literature review. Additionally, the presence of quantitative dimension contributes to the reliability of the qualitative data derived from interviews and audio recordings.
When it concerns research nursing, the ignorance of ethical issues is unacceptable because all researches in nursing deal with patients and their welfare. Additionally, daily ethical issues also relate to nurses who often feel pressure while addressing ethical dilemmas and dealing with patient care (Ulrich et al. 2010). In this respect, the article by Chan also focuses on the ethical issues while choosing the participants for the research studies. In support of these assumptions, Pavlish et al. (2011) argue that nurses in all environments can face ethical challenges that can cause moral distress. Employing the incident technique, the research has introduced a questionnaire that gathered data on ethically stressful situations, including early indicators and risk factors. Two nurse researchers analysed and classified data employing a constant comparison approaches. According to the researchers, the majority of morally and ethically stressful situations are related to terminally-ill patients, with the prevalence of confrontations in interpersonal relations. In this context, nurses were morally moved by family suffering and were extremely concerned with the children and adult vulnerability. The article under analysis also focuses on ethical consideration both in the methodological development and in the content of the article because effective communicational and behavioural patterns should be shaped with reliance on ethical deliberations.
The ethical principles should guide the research in all aspects to adhere to the international standards of conducting global research. Due to the fact that ethics deals with the way people communicate and interact with each other, it is important for the research to be carried out across borders to be congruent with the needs of the community. In this context, the choice of a mixed-method research design is successful because it sheds light on communication, attitude, and interaction.
The article has managed to provide quantitative and qualitative results in tables on cure-responding behaviours (Polit & Beck 2013). The qualitative part is described in a way to create a more favourable atmosphere for expressing the major assumptions. The article also introduces limitations that enhance the validity of the research. At the same time, due to the fact that the participants of the organisation are nurse students, it is very difficult to define the patterns of communication. Therefore, the role of theoretical analysis is emphasised in this case.
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Findings/Discussion and Interpretations
The article introduces discussion that could also be represented as an important issue which interprets, summarises, and synthesises information. It also introduces the outcomes of the study by relating to such issues as nursing culture, professional identity, and self-awareness. It is an important aspect in enhancing the effectiveness of communication. Additionally, the article deliberates on patient-centred and task-focused care which are premised on different assignments. The discussion also contains the evaluation of the results, but extensive focus on theoretical analysis prevents the reader from understanding the value of the discussion.
Acquiring knowledge in nursing is a complicated process which should be supported both by practical and theoretical findings. In this respect, a mixture of both findings in the article is the most effective solution. Burns and Grove (2010) underscore that traditions are a part of knowledge acquisition process that is premised on gathering beliefs and truth from existing customs and trends. Specifically, “nursing traditions from the past have been transferred to the present by written and oral communication and role modeling and they continue to influence the practice of nursing” (Burns & Grove 2010). Authority is also an important element that affects behaviour and provides specific validity to the research study. In the research study, the validity is the key to successful development of methodology and research objectives.
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The limitation section as itself is not represented in the article, but some references to it are presented in other sections. Specifically, limitations are included into the result section, whereas discussion section contains a number of recommendations for exploring communication patterns. The practical part of the assignment is also discussed in the final sections. The conclusion section is not presented, but it does not prevent from summarising and interpreting the results of the study.